Reading Notes Chapter 5

  1. Visual Logic: Everything that makes up an images communicates with each other. I can create a better semblance of unity in my project by using visual logic.
  2. Organizational Strategies: Everything in an image should have a definite order and arrangement to enhance visual aspects of the image. Picking definite orders and arrangements for everything in an image can give my projects more structure.
  3. Column Grid: A column grid is used when information that is discontinuous benefits from being organized. I can use column grids to make information that is disorganized more organized.
  4. Modular Grid: A modular grid is used for extremely complex project the require more precise control. I can use modular grids to make quick and varied changes on complex projects.
  5. Grid by Image: A grid can possibly be defines by the image content by comparing proportions. I can use this to create different possibilities for arranging objects or images.
  6. Grid by Text: A grid can be defines by the shape and volume of text. I can use this to create a hierarchy for information that is displayed in my works.
  7.  Grid Deconstruction: Splitting apart a conventional grid can create new verbal connections that never existed before. I can use grid deconstruction to create new possible combinations for spatial ambiguity or exaggerated textures.
  8. Spontaneous Optical Composition: This compositional method involves the purposeful and intuitive placement of material based on its formal aspects. I can use this compositional method to determine qualities appropriate for communication to my audience.
  9. Conceptual/Pictorial Allusion: This method of creating compositions stems from deriving a visual idea from the content that is imposed on that page as a kind of arbitrary structure. By using this method, I can give my images an artistic edge.
  10. Formal Congruence:  The similarities between type elements and pictorial elements. I can use this to complement various visual and textual elements in my works.

Journal #4: the world of IMAGE

“Images are no longer just representations or interpreters of human actions. They have become central to every action that connects humans to each other… as much reference points for information and knowledge as visualizations of human creativity” -Ron Burnett

  1. Abstract & Representation
    • An image will always be a mixture of abstract and representation. Using intrinsic messaging of abstract form can influence a photograph composition’s messaging potential.
  2. Image Modes
    • Mode- the form of an image’s representation
    • A designer might choose to represent an idea by using photographs, illustrations, or a hybrid.
  3. Semiology and Stylization
    • The designers goal is to invent a specific graphic language- an internal logic of positive and negative relationships, an emphasis on curved or angular forms, and an integration of line and mass.
  4. Illustration
    • The choice of illustration over photography opens up tremendous possibility for transmitting information. An illustration can be concrete, objective, or realistic in how it presents it subject.
  5. The Medium is a Message
    • The language of the tool has a powerful effect on an illustration’s communicative value, not just on its visual qualities relative to other elements in a design solution.
  6. Graphic Translation
    • Depicts subjects in a literal way.
  7. Strategies for Composition
    • Designers often forget they are not bound by the realities of arrangement imposed by the scene they are rendering.
  8. Mixing Image Style
    • Creating contrast among visual elements is key to surprising, refreshing, and enlivening layouts.
  9. Narrative Interplay
    • Putting photographs together increases their semantic power and creates narrative or storytelling.
  10. Metaphor
    • A designer may present an image that means something else entirely, refers to a much broader concept, or combines concepts to evoke a third concept that is not explicit in either of the combinations.

Chapter 4 Reading Notes

  1. Image modes and mediation- This would be when I try to manipulate photography, paintings or other images together. Sometimes when you mix certain social and historical context together it can cause the audience to experience different views.
  2. Semiology and stylization- This will help me when I am trying to show an important element such as a logo. Things such as its positioning where certain elements are supposed to be placed by still trying to convey a message.
  3. Illustration- this introduces me to try new things. When making a design I can use overlays and make abstract shapes. I can use this to act details that do not normally exist in a real scene or to exaggerate movement, space, or lighting.
  4. The medium is a message – This can be done by using different tools while designing. These would be things like adding softness or hardness to a photo. Examples are etching, linocut, ink, or charcoal.
  1. Graphic translation- This would be a way of combining an icon and symbol together. It can still translate a message. It does not necessarily need to be black and white. It is usually a flat and simple design.
  2. Collage: old & new – I think this is my favorite way of putting different elements together. It brings out different photos together and makes its look even cooler. An example is using two dimensional printed or found materials such as newspaper or fabric with another photo.
  1. Photography- By using photos that I take or use I can add another element to it. I could make it three dimensional or add different colors to certain areas. I could also do a black and white photo by using shadows and different lights.
  2. Type as image- I think using fonts are super important because it is usually the logo of a company. You can use fonts and make a shape out of It while still trying to portray a message. Examples would be alteration or form substitution.
  3. Mixing image styles- By adding different styles, I think it makes art more interesting. It is things you wouldn’t usually put together. By adding a picture in back of a font it can cause the viewer to see what the person is trying to convey.
  4. Word and image: brainwashing the narrative –One picture can mean different words or meanings when someone’s sees it. Word and image can create a single message that can change the viewers mind. It can alter their mindset.

Reading Notes Chapter 4

1.  How abstraction can change a simple object or shape in an image into something beautiful.

2. How the image mode is influenced by the medium of an image as well as the images simplicity.

3. Seismology: the study of relationships between signs and what they represent.

4. How the choice of using an illustration over photography removes the limitation of using real-world objects.

5. The distinct differences between drawing and painting. Also the characteristics that each bring to the designer.

6. The importance of realism in an image and how it can improve an image’s overall atmosphere.

7. How the medium of an illustration or photo communicates a message to the viewer.

8. How the type of image can change the perceptual filter the viewer associated with the image.

9. Mixing image styles can change the size, shape, color, and spatial arrangements of objects in an image.

10. The artistic power that semantic content plays when making an image.



“In the hands of a designer who knows how to command composition on a purely visual level, and who can conceptually select and manipulate content, an image is by far the most profound communication tool available.”

  1. Image “mode” is determined by the designer based on emotional qualities of the content, the number of messages to be differentiated, expectations of the audience, and production issues.
  2. How “mediated” an image is can be evaluated based on how realistic its physical interpretation is, or how complex vs. literal the messaging is.
  3. Semiology: The anthropological field of studying what signs symbolize.
  4. The medium carries meaning in terms of feeling (softness, hardness, fluidity, and stiffness) and concept.
  5. The directness of photography allows the viewer to digest the information more quickly, accepting it as “real” and processing mediated elements on a secondary level.
  6. Any time a letter or word takes on pictorial qualities, it becomes an image in itself and creates a “supersign” with new levels of complexity.
  7. Image styles need contrast as well as demonstrate some similarity in order to achieve a unified message.
  8. Semantic Content: Conceptual, verbal, and emotional messages that are not literally represented in the subject.
  9. The moment two images are juxtaposed, the viewer will try to establish a meaningful connection between the two. Every photograph influences the others around it.
  10. Some ways to establish visual metaphor are by (1) using an object to define the form of something else, (2) depicting one thing acting like another, or (3) combining seemingly unrelated images to create a new meaning.

Reading Notes Ch 4

1.  Abstraction and Representation

  • An image might mostly be representational or mostly abstract, but it always will be a mixture of the two.  Abstract images communicate ideas that are grounded in the human experience.

2.  Image Modes and Mediation

  • A designer might choose to represent an idea by using photographs, illustrations, or a hybrid manipulated photographs or drawn images in combination.

3.  Semiology and Stylization

  • A designer might often need to represent ideas in a stylized way, selecting the most important elements form a subject and arranging them in as concise and simplified a message as possible.

4.  Illustration

  • The choice of illustration over photography opens up tremendous possibility for transmitting information.

5.  Drawing and Painting

  • The directness of hand-generated images is universally appealing, the designer taps into a viewer’s own sense of creativity and connects on an extremely personal level.

6.  The Medium Is a Message

  • Every drawing and painting tool makes characteristic marks and affords a designer a specific kind of visual language.  The language of the tool has a powerful effect on an illustration’s communicative value, not just on its visual qualities relative to other elements in a design solution.

7.  Graphic Translation

  • Graphic translation combines some attributes of both icon and symbol.  It depicts subjects in a literal way, like an icon, but also in a self-consciously abstract way that takes on symbolic qualities.

8.  Collage: Old and New

  • Assembling graphic elements in a free pictorial composition, called “collage”, is a relatively recent development in illustration. It derives from the evolution of representation in fine art form depicting a strictly singular view-point through the construction of multiple viewpoints.

9.  Photography

  • Realism and directness allow a viewer to enter the image and process it very quickly, rather than get distracted by abstract pictorial issues such as texture, medium, and composition.

10.  Narrative Interplay

  • Putting photographs together increases their semantic power and creates narrative, or storytelling; the instant two images can be compared, whether juxtaposed or arranged in sequence, a viewer will try to establish meaningful connections between them.