Chapter 3 Notes

1) “The typographer is to the text as the theatrical director to the script, or the musician to the score.”

Typography is a craft; it requires attention and skill. I believe one of the greatest faults a graphic designer can make is carelessness with type.

2) Form and Counterform: “To enhance their look and legibility, all-uppercase setting must always be spaced a little more loosely than normal.”

This rule is extremely helpful for me to know, especially when pairing lowercase words with uppercase.

3) Always evaluate on a case by case basis.

It is best to not expect rules to be completely universal; there will always be exceptions.

4) Type Sizes and Spacing

This portion talks about how two fonts at the same size in points may look very different in size. Furthermore, when reducing or enlarging a text size, the spacing needs to be taken into consideration as well.

5) Visual Variation: The 6 Aspects of Typeface

Breaking down typefaces into case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style can help me to articulate what makes certain types different from others. Furthermore, in comparison to each other, certain typefaces seem more stylized than others.

6) Style Classifications

The different categories of type style would be beneficial for me to memorize. I never before new what determined whether a font was traditional or modern. I personally am drawn to sans serif fonts.

7) Combining Type Styles

Contrast between typefaces is important for creating a hierarchy. Fonts within the same family can create tension, and the weight of the stroke plays a heavy hand in how they relate to each other. However, the rule of convention is to use two different type families.

8) Alignment Logic

I had not previous realized the importance of alignment when creating large amounts of text. The designs on pg. 135 show the acute differences between center axis and justified text.

9) Typographic Color

This deals with the texture, rhythmic, and spatial qualities of type. The value as well as compactness and amount of text all contribute to the effect they have on the viewer.

10) “Design students and novices often make the mistake of ignoring the abstract visual nature of type…”

The author suggest that type and pictures should be on equal playing ground. Type is after all made up of dots and should be treated as an important part of the overall composition.


  1. Hue describes the identity of the color, saturation is it intensity, value describes its darkness or lightness, and temperature is a subjective quality related to our experience of hot and cold. All are subjectively impacted when compared with adjacent colors.
  2. Color values can affect the reading hierarchy of the text. The element with the greatest value contrast will be read or seen first.
  3. Hue Relationships: The closer together the hues appear on the wheel, the more harmonious or related. The farther apart, the more contrasted.
  4. Analogous colors are adjacent to each other on the wheel, and primarily feature a temperature difference. Complementary colors are opposite of each other on the wheel. Triadic colors are 120 degrees apart from each other on the wheel.
  5. Extension: The volume of a given color needed to support the presence of another color depends on the wavelength and intensity.
  6. VALUE RELATIONSHIPS: Regardless of hue, all colors will have a relative relationship to each other in terms of lightness and darkness. Manipulating this relationship allows the designer to create rhythm and visual hierarchy.
  7. Cool colors appear to recede in space, while warm colors appear to advance. Of the primary colors, blue will recede and yellow will advance, while red stays in the middle.
  8. When working with limited color systems, choosing them based on deeper saturation and closer value allows for a wider range of possible combinations and potential contrast.
  9. Color Psychology: Warmer colors require more energy to process them through the eye and the brain, causing a rise in metabolic rate. Cooler colors require less energy to process, causing a lowering of metabolic rate.
  10. Manipulating color changes the feeling of images, and the designer must anticipate what the viewer will experience.

Journal #3: choosing & using TYPE

  1. Type Sizes & Spacing
    • Setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text has an impact on spacing.
  2. Visual Variations
    • Not all viewers will perceive the same associations in a given type face; the designer needs to carefully evaluate the typeface selection in the context of the audience for a particular piece.
  3. Style Classifications
    • Classifying type helps a designer grasp subtle differences between styles, allowing them to select an appropriate typeface for a particular project.
  4. Know the Details
    • Selecting a type face for its feeling or mood is tricky and often comes down to a designers gut reaction to it.
  5. Combining Type Styles
    • A rule of thumb and a good start to mixing typefaces is to select two type families for a given job. It provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrast and it forces a designer to exercise some restraint.
  6. Alignment Logic
    • The alignment of the text has an effect on the spacing within it and on the search for desirable text setting.
  7. Type is Visual
    • Type is visual and in space it operates the same way that dots, lines, squares, fields of texture and patterns do in any composition.
  8. Typographic Color
    • Changing the typographic color of the components separates them from the surface and introduces the illusion of spatial depth and a sense of changing rhythm.
  9. The Texture of Language
    • The variation of typography texture- boldness, size, linearity, texture- is a source for typographic color. Approaching typographic material in a sensory way is a powerful method designers can employ in creating a more vivid text experience.
  10. Alignments, Masses, and Voids
    • Visual structure must evolve out of the verbal structure of language. The verbal sense helps define what material within it might be mass or line.

I haven’t really thought about typography, except to choose a font that I really like personally. I always try to choose one that fits the piece though, but its usually one I like and I guarantee that I haven’t thought half of these things through.

Reading Notes #3

1)visual variations – there are six aspects when it comes to letterforms which are case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style. There have been several typefaces that have discarded or evolved throughout time. Certain typefaces are associated with certain time periods or movements.

2) form and counter form: the optics of spacing- this is important to show the spacing of letters, sentences, and paragraphs. Every type has a different stroke or space. Letters can be closer or farther together. Letters can also be lighter and darker in color.

3)know what and why: the details – this can be hard for some people because we can be indecisive. This is usually the artist’s gut reaction. People will usually certain typefaces because of their popularity. Some typefaces can have subject matter. I have to choose typefaces that go with the images and other objects.

4) combining type styles: I think this is a great element. This because I think it looks cool and different when you add a bunch of type styles together. I think people would usually use different type styles to show a heading and then the paragraph.

5) assessing character count, leading, and width – this depends on how much you want to fit on one single line. This all depends on the width of the paragraph and the format of the page.
6) the optimal paragraph – when it comes this the creator should pay attention to the text they use. These would be things such as height and weight like the strokes. I think for me I would have to fix spacing and size. I have to make sure the text is not too small or too big.

7) separating paragraphs: There is needs to be breaks so there are sections of texts. It was interesting to read that in the 15th century there was no breaks in text. This can help show break text and show what the next section is going to be about. I learned that the ident should be deeper if the leading is loose.

8) type is visual, too: This element is vital because not only images are important so is text. Text can be color and tell a story.

9) the texture of language: when the text is in different textures it brings elements and make it pop. These examples would be making it bold, the size, and rhythm. The text is visual and make people want to be interested in what they are writing. If I am trying to write a statement and bring out emotion like I am yelling I would change the size of text.

10) establishing hierarchy: I would use this element when it comes to showing captions and sidebars on a poster or webpage. This would help to use when making titles to show its hierarchy. It mostly used to show the focus and importance of a certain section.

Reading Notes Ch.3

  1. The different densities of type makes it easier to identify proper spacing
    • While I am designing I want to pay more attention to why certain letter look better together and how I can use it to my advantage when making a design
  2. The size of a typeface appears different depending on the relationship between the size of the capital letters and the size of the lower case letters
    • In the design process, I want to identify why fonts the same size seem bigger or smaller and how that changes the way two fonts work together.
  3. Picking a typeface often comes down to the designers gut decision
    • I need to learn to understand that typeface relies more on my gut idea rather than on an exact science.  As I design, I want to observe why I think certain type faces work better than others and why I am drawn to particular typefaces.
  4. Contrast between typefaces should be recognizable
    • I often struggle to find typefaces that work well together.  As I design, I want to be careful to use different font for the purpose of creating contrast by choosing fonts that are not extremely similar to each other.
  5. Having paragraphs aligned left is preferred
    • When using paragraphs in my design, I want to change how I view the paragraph.  The ripples that are created from the left aligned paragraph because they are organic.
  6. Changing the width and size of the text can make the overall look of a paragraph more appealing.
    • I will often change a typeface because I do not like the way it looks in a paragraph.  However, I want to be more intentional on taking the type to change the width and size between lines and words to adjust the overall look of the paragraph.
  7. Always put more space between italicized words
    • Italicized words are written differently and therefore they also need to be spaced different.  I need to pay more attention to the details when I design and change the spacing between italicized words so that they are easier to read.
  8. Heavy type seems closer than thin type which seems to recede.
    • Different typefaces communicate multiple ideas.  As I design, I need to identify the multiple ideas that typeface is communicating and how it changes based on how closer the viewer feels towards the typeface.
  9. Changing the size, width, and weight of words can create clarity while also communicating the message effectively
    • Using size, width, and weight instead of using different fonts in a type family can emphasize words differently when I design.
  10. Changing the space between words can change the way certain words are emphasized.
    • I can use space to highlight importance in my design where more space creates a higher importance.  In the design process, I want to change how I use space to change the way words are interpreted in my design.

reading notes #2

1) color relationships- This model will help me when it comes to creating.  The wheel is a visual representation of colors. It positions the colors according to the primary, secondary, tertiary, and complementary colors. It helps the person creating to see the different colors ideas.

2)color psychology– I think this is important when because all of us think of colors as different meanings. Certain colors like red, blue, black, and white can mean all kinds of different things. The colors can influence and showcase different messages. It can also create emotions that people connect to.

3) color: form and space – When it comes to this I think it makes art look cooler and different. When applying color to composition it will have an effect on its hierarchy. When it comes to showing off characteristics it can enhance the hierarchic levels. It just makes certain colors pop out more.

4) color stories: coding with color – This can help when it comes to making graphics that use text. Most people develop a palette that will serve to show things such as headlines and the body. Anything can show the information and message. You don’t want to make it look confusing just be simple with the text. It is not good to use so many colors.

5)color proportioning:  This would help If I were going to emphasize and create the impact of composition. There are different variable systems. For example, there are systems that show color-coding relationships. This would include hue, value, saturation, and temperature. The colors can be the same hue but are different in the values and intensities.

 6) limited color systems: When it comes to color systems this is helpful if you are doing branding. As well as when it comes to printing. It can also show how colors overlap when it comes to images and illustrations. It can bring out certain elements and images with color.

7) temperature relationships: This relationship groups establishes colors together based on its temperature. These would be things like putting together 1 or 2 variations of the same hues that are warmer or cooler.

8)saturation relationships: This has an effect on value or temperature. This can be less intense to more intense. Hue is desaturated and can be more darker but it can also look cooler. It just gives off a rich color with different color palettes.

9) hue relationships – This can be independent with saturation and value. These would be things that lie on the color wheel that shows the rainbow of colors. When the colors are closer together you can see how similar other colors are too. But when they are father apart you can see how other colors can work with each other.

10) value relationships– The values of a palette can be either show off darkness or lightness. If you use a lighter value it can make the text seem like it does not have alot of impact. if a text or image is darker it shows that it has more value and impact.

Reading Notes Ch 3

1. The Nuts and Bolts

  • A system of lines with visual relationships that are nearly invisible built in the letters of the western alphabet.

2. Form and Counterform: The Optics of Spacing

  • Every typeface has a distinct rhythm of strokes and spaces.  This relationship between form and counterform defines the optimal spacing of that particular typeface and therefore of the overall spacing between words, between lines of type, and among paragraphs.

3. Type Sizes and Spacing

  • Typeface has an impact on the perception of its size, setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text also has an impact on spacing.

4. Visual Variations

  • The letterforms in all typefaces vary form their archetypes in only six aspects: case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style.

5. Style Classifications

  • Classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way further helping to select and appropriate typeface for a particular project.

6. Combining Type Styles

  • Provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrasts, and it forces a designer to exercise some restraint.  Only reason to change a typeface is to gain an effect of contrast.

7. Exploring the Ragged Edge

  • The rag of a paragraph might range from deep to shallow and active to subtle, but its uniformity and consistency form the top of a paragraph down to the bottom are what make it desirable.

8. Type is Visual, Too

  • Design students and novices often make the mistake of ignoring the abstract visual nature of type and, as a result, use type in a heavy-handed way that doesn’t correspond with image material in effect, separating the two things completely.

9. Typographic Color

  • Typographic color is similar to chromatic color like red, blue, or orange but deals only with changes in lightness and darkness, or value.

10. Color and Hierarchy

  • Applying color to a black and white typographic composition will have an immediate effect on hierarchy.  It’s often a good idea to understand how the hierarchy works in black and white first, separating the typographic components through their typographic color their density and  rhythm, linearity and mass.

Reading Notes Chapter 3

1. The Nuts and Bolts:

The western alphabet is made up of an intricate system of lines that are nearly invisible. By learning about this system, I can gain a deeper meaning of the importance of text in my work.

2. Form and Counter form:

The spacing of letters into words, sentences, and paragraphs  is vital. Every kind of typeface has different spaces and strokes. Learning the different spaces and strokes of typefaces will help me to put more emphasis on wording.

3. Visual Variations:

Every typeface contains six different aspects that make it unique. These aspects are case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style. By learning the subtle changes in these aspects from every typeface, I can choose which one(s) will best suit my projects.

4. Style Classifications:

Each typeface can be classified by the subtle differences between them such as smaller brackets or a more defined serif. Learning these subtle differences can help me grasp the importance of choosing a typeface carefully.

5. Know What and Why:

It can be difficult to select a typeface based on its feeling or mood. Choosing a typeface often boils down to the designer’s gut reaction or the shapes inherent to that style. By learning the mood that corresponds to each typeface, I can control how the viewer will react.

6. Combining Type Styles:

Combining typefaces is conventionally used in the work space. The dispenser must choose typefaces with a clear notion of hierarchy. By establishing hierarchy, I can combine typefaces without losing each typefaces meaning.

7. Alignment Logic:

Types can be set to different positions that are called alignments. They can be made to start from the left, right , or center. By learning the logic required when using alignments, I can choose the best alignment for a particular work.

8. Type is Visual, Too:

People often ignore the abstract and visual nature of type. Type itself is visual just like any object that occupies space. By realizing that type is visual, I can use it in a similar manner to the shapes that occupy my images.

9. Typographic Color:

A type’s rhythmic, spatial, and textural qualities are known as the term typographic color. Changing the typographic color of text will not only change the size but also perception of its spatial depth. Learning the value of typographic colors can help my images to have text that draws the viewer in.

10. The Texture of Language:

Typographic texture-changes in boldness, size, linearity, texture, and rhythm- are a source for typographic color. By approaching the typographical material carefully, I can make the viewer feel the emotional impact of my own words.