| CH. 3 NOTES |

  1. the nuts and bolts

letters at a standard reading size. the eye perceives letters to be all the same, weight, height, and width. This is the most critical aspect of type: stylistic uniformity discourages distraction during the reading process.

2.logo type

loose letter spacing makes a more distinct rhythm, and improves the legibility of the all uppercase setting and obviates spacing problems.


tightening or loosening spacing between letters corrects the awkward counter spaces inherent in their forms.

4. Case, weight, width,posture, and style

all very important things to learn about type that change the font drastically

5.Style classifications

classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among style, organizing them in a general way further helping select an appropriate typeface for a project.

6. What and why

selecting a typeface for its feel and mood for a particular style.

7. Combining type styles

the only reason to change a type face is to gain an effect of contrast,and so that the contrast achieved by the combination should be clearly recognizable.

8. Alignment logic


alignment of text has an effect on the spacing and within it and, therefore on the search for a desirable text setting.

9. push and pull

colons and semi colons need additional space preceding them and less space following them.

10. type is visual

acts as the same way that dots, lines squares, etc. do in composition. Type and pictures are equal players in design.


  1. “Stylistic uniformity discourages distraction during the reading process.”
  2. The goal in spacing letters is to have a rhythm between solid and void, but the primary difficulty is that letters have different densities. Computers have built in programming to correct spacing or “kerning” between letters, but the designer will need to make corrections sometimes too.
  3. Spacing must change at different sizes to allow for character recognition and improve legibility at smaller fonts.
  4. Any typeface becomes more neutral when something more stylized appears next to it.
  5. Contrast among typefaces that are juxtaposed is critical to achieving clarity, and helping the reader to categorize the information.
  6. Alignment: Centered-axis text is traditional and justified text reinforces geometry on the page.
  7. Methods of indicating a new paragraph include a line return, an indent, a bold lead line, or a graphic object.
  8. Typographic Color: Deals only with changes in lightness or darkness, and impacts the rhythm and texture of a page. Larger chunks of type come forward on the page, while lighter chunks recede into the background.
  9. Visual Hierarchy: Can be distinguished using changes in size, weight, alignment, rhythm, spacing, width or posture, orientation, gray value, or background contrast.
  10. Viewers will assume that even contrasting text elements are related to each other, so there must be an overarching unity to design choices.

Reading Notes Ch:3 Choosing and using Type

  1. The Nuts and Bolts
  • When the same type is enlarged and the minutes changes in character heigh, stroke width and the shapes become apparent.

2. Type Sizes and Spacing

  • Typeface has an impact on the perception of its size, setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text.

3.  Visual Variations

  • The letterforms in all typefaces vary form because a designers job is to carefully select his or her typeface. Alphabet Variation is an important step that’s able to combine correct typefaces for a project.

4. The Optics of Spacing

  • Every typeface has a distinct way of showing strokes and spaces.  This relationship between form and counter forms the optimal spacing of that particular typeface, between lines of type, and among paragraphs.

5. Style Classifications

  • Classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way to help designers to select an correct typeface for a project.

6.  Combining Type Styles

  • Provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrasts. Select only two similar typefaces for a given position. Context has an important role in wondering whether or not to adhere to such limitation.

7. Know What and Why

It can be difficult to select a typeface based on its feeling or mood but every designer learns the mood that corresponds to each typeface, and shows how the viewer will react.

8. Alignment Logic

Justified text is the only setting which the lines are the same length and size. Rag is an uneven length.

9. Exploring the Ragged Edge

  • The rag of a paragraph might range from deep to shallow and active to subtle, consistency form the top of a paragraph down to the bottom.


10. Color and Hierarchy

  • Applying color to a black and white typographic composition will have an immediate effect on hierarchy.  It’s a good idea to understand how the hierarchy works in black and white.

Reading Notes Ch.3: Choosing and Using Type

1.The Nuts and Bolts -When the same type is enlarged, minute changes in character heigh, stroke width, and shape become apparent.

2.The Optics of spacing- Each type face as its own rhythm of strokes and spaces. The relationship between form and counter-form defines the optimal spacing of words, between lines of type , and among paragraphs.

3.Type sizes and spacing- Setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text also has an impact on spacing. Optimal spacing at reading size means that the stokes and counter-forms are evenly alternating.

4. Visual Variations- A designer must carefully evaluate his or her typeface selection in the context of the audience for a particular piece. Alphabet variation is an important first step in being able to select and combine appropriate typefaces for a project.

5. Style Classification- Classing type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way and further helping to select an appropriate typeface for a particular project.

6. The Details- Selecting a typeface for its feeling or mood is a tricky endeavor that often comes down to a designer’s rhythm  or shapes inherent in a particular style.

7. Combining Type Styles- Select only two typeface families for a given job, context plays an important role in deciding whether or not to adhere to such limitation.

8. Alignment Logic- Justified text is the only setting in which the lines are the same length. Rag is uneven lengths of the lines create soft shape on the nonaligned side.

9. Exploring the Ragged Edges- Word order and word breaks across lines also affect the rag. Designers must weigh the consequences of re-breaking the lines to prevent these problems against their effect on the rag as a whole.

10. The Optimal Paragraph- In which constellation of variables achieve a harmonic balance is a desirable paragraph setting. By comparing the results of these variations, a designer will be able to determine the comfortable text setting for extended reading.

Chapter 3 Notes

1) “The typographer is to the text as the theatrical director to the script, or the musician to the score.”

Typography is a craft; it requires attention and skill. I believe one of the greatest faults a graphic designer can make is carelessness with type.

2) Form and Counterform: “To enhance their look and legibility, all-uppercase setting must always be spaced a little more loosely than normal.”

This rule is extremely helpful for me to know, especially when pairing lowercase words with uppercase.

3) Always evaluate on a case by case basis.

It is best to not expect rules to be completely universal; there will always be exceptions.

4) Type Sizes and Spacing

This portion talks about how two fonts at the same size in points may look very different in size. Furthermore, when reducing or enlarging a text size, the spacing needs to be taken into consideration as well.

5) Visual Variation: The 6 Aspects of Typeface

Breaking down typefaces into case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style can help me to articulate what makes certain types different from others. Furthermore, in comparison to each other, certain typefaces seem more stylized than others.

6) Style Classifications

The different categories of type style would be beneficial for me to memorize. I never before new what determined whether a font was traditional or modern. I personally am drawn to sans serif fonts.

7) Combining Type Styles

Contrast between typefaces is important for creating a hierarchy. Fonts within the same family can create tension, and the weight of the stroke plays a heavy hand in how they relate to each other. However, the rule of convention is to use two different type families.

8) Alignment Logic

I had not previous realized the importance of alignment when creating large amounts of text. The designs on pg. 135 show the acute differences between center axis and justified text.

9) Typographic Color

This deals with the texture, rhythmic, and spatial qualities of type. The value as well as compactness and amount of text all contribute to the effect they have on the viewer.

10) “Design students and novices often make the mistake of ignoring the abstract visual nature of type…”

The author suggest that type and pictures should be on equal playing ground. Type is after all made up of dots and should be treated as an important part of the overall composition.


  1. Hue describes the identity of the color, saturation is it intensity, value describes its darkness or lightness, and temperature is a subjective quality related to our experience of hot and cold. All are subjectively impacted when compared with adjacent colors.
  2. Color values can affect the reading hierarchy of the text. The element with the greatest value contrast will be read or seen first.
  3. Hue Relationships: The closer together the hues appear on the wheel, the more harmonious or related. The farther apart, the more contrasted.
  4. Analogous colors are adjacent to each other on the wheel, and primarily feature a temperature difference. Complementary colors are opposite of each other on the wheel. Triadic colors are 120 degrees apart from each other on the wheel.
  5. Extension: The volume of a given color needed to support the presence of another color depends on the wavelength and intensity.
  6. VALUE RELATIONSHIPS: Regardless of hue, all colors will have a relative relationship to each other in terms of lightness and darkness. Manipulating this relationship allows the designer to create rhythm and visual hierarchy.
  7. Cool colors appear to recede in space, while warm colors appear to advance. Of the primary colors, blue will recede and yellow will advance, while red stays in the middle.
  8. When working with limited color systems, choosing them based on deeper saturation and closer value allows for a wider range of possible combinations and potential contrast.
  9. Color Psychology: Warmer colors require more energy to process them through the eye and the brain, causing a rise in metabolic rate. Cooler colors require less energy to process, causing a lowering of metabolic rate.
  10. Manipulating color changes the feeling of images, and the designer must anticipate what the viewer will experience.

Journal #3: choosing & using TYPE

  1. Type Sizes & Spacing
    • Setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text has an impact on spacing.
  2. Visual Variations
    • Not all viewers will perceive the same associations in a given type face; the designer needs to carefully evaluate the typeface selection in the context of the audience for a particular piece.
  3. Style Classifications
    • Classifying type helps a designer grasp subtle differences between styles, allowing them to select an appropriate typeface for a particular project.
  4. Know the Details
    • Selecting a type face for its feeling or mood is tricky and often comes down to a designers gut reaction to it.
  5. Combining Type Styles
    • A rule of thumb and a good start to mixing typefaces is to select two type families for a given job. It provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrast and it forces a designer to exercise some restraint.
  6. Alignment Logic
    • The alignment of the text has an effect on the spacing within it and on the search for desirable text setting.
  7. Type is Visual
    • Type is visual and in space it operates the same way that dots, lines, squares, fields of texture and patterns do in any composition.
  8. Typographic Color
    • Changing the typographic color of the components separates them from the surface and introduces the illusion of spatial depth and a sense of changing rhythm.
  9. The Texture of Language
    • The variation of typography texture- boldness, size, linearity, texture- is a source for typographic color. Approaching typographic material in a sensory way is a powerful method designers can employ in creating a more vivid text experience.
  10. Alignments, Masses, and Voids
    • Visual structure must evolve out of the verbal structure of language. The verbal sense helps define what material within it might be mass or line.

I haven’t really thought about typography, except to choose a font that I really like personally. I always try to choose one that fits the piece though, but its usually one I like and I guarantee that I haven’t thought half of these things through.