Reading Notes Ch 3

1. The Nuts and Bolts

  • A system of lines with visual relationships that are nearly invisible built in the letters of the western alphabet.

2. Form and Counterform: The Optics of Spacing

  • Every typeface has a distinct rhythm of strokes and spaces.  This relationship between form and counterform defines the optimal spacing of that particular typeface and therefore of the overall spacing between words, between lines of type, and among paragraphs.

3. Type Sizes and Spacing

  • Typeface has an impact on the perception of its size, setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text also has an impact on spacing.

4. Visual Variations

  • The letterforms in all typefaces vary form their archetypes in only six aspects: case, weight, contrast, width, posture, and style.

5. Style Classifications

  • Classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way further helping to select and appropriate typeface for a particular project.

6. Combining Type Styles

  • Provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrasts, and it forces a designer to exercise some restraint.  Only reason to change a typeface is to gain an effect of contrast.

7. Exploring the Ragged Edge

  • The rag of a paragraph might range from deep to shallow and active to subtle, but its uniformity and consistency form the top of a paragraph down to the bottom are what make it desirable.

8. Type is Visual, Too

  • Design students and novices often make the mistake of ignoring the abstract visual nature of type and, as a result, use type in a heavy-handed way that doesn’t correspond with image material in effect, separating the two things completely.

9. Typographic Color

  • Typographic color is similar to chromatic color like red, blue, or orange but deals only with changes in lightness and darkness, or value.

10. Color and Hierarchy

  • Applying color to a black and white typographic composition will have an immediate effect on hierarchy.  It’s often a good idea to understand how the hierarchy works in black and white first, separating the typographic components through their typographic color their density and  rhythm, linearity and mass.

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