Reading Notes Ch.3: Choosing and Using Type

1.The Nuts and Bolts -When the same type is enlarged, minute changes in character heigh, stroke width, and shape become apparent.

2.The Optics of spacing- Each type face as its own rhythm of strokes and spaces. The relationship between form and counter-form defines the optimal spacing of words, between lines of type , and among paragraphs.

3.Type sizes and spacing- Setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text also has an impact on spacing. Optimal spacing at reading size means that the stokes and counter-forms are evenly alternating.

4. Visual Variations- A designer must carefully evaluate his or her typeface selection in the context of the audience for a particular piece. Alphabet variation is an important first step in being able to select and combine appropriate typefaces for a project.

5. Style Classification- Classing type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way and further helping to select an appropriate typeface for a particular project.

6. The Details- Selecting a typeface for its feeling or mood is a tricky endeavor that often comes down to a designer’s rhythm  or shapes inherent in a particular style.

7. Combining Type Styles- Select only two typeface families for a given job, context plays an important role in deciding whether or not to adhere to such limitation.

8. Alignment Logic- Justified text is the only setting in which the lines are the same length. Rag is uneven lengths of the lines create soft shape on the nonaligned side.

9. Exploring the Ragged Edges- Word order and word breaks across lines also affect the rag. Designers must weigh the consequences of re-breaking the lines to prevent these problems against their effect on the rag as a whole.

10. The Optimal Paragraph- In which constellation of variables achieve a harmonic balance is a desirable paragraph setting. By comparing the results of these variations, a designer will be able to determine the comfortable text setting for extended reading.

Chapter 2: Color Fundamentals

1. Hue- The result of of how we perceive light being reflected from objects at particular frequencies.


2. Hue Relationships- Designers can create interaction between different hues, independent of their saturation or value, according to the where they lie on the color wheel.


3. Saturation- Describes the intensity and brilliance of colors, dull colors are said to be desaturated.  


4. Saturation Relationships- Saturation relationships may occur independently of hue relationships, but will usually have an effect on value or temperature. Grouping complementary hues, or split complements, all with similar values but different saturation , will create a rich color experience.


5. Value- Describes the colors intrinsic darkness and lightness ratio value.Lightening the value of an intensely saturated hue tends to desaturate it. Darkening the value of a moderately to intensely saturated hue will initially intensify its saturation, but if too much, hue will become less vibrant.


6. Value Relationships- A designer can create contrast and rhythm among darker and lighter areas- even if the number of hues used, or how different they are, is limited.


7. Temperature- A colors subjective quality that is related to experiences. Cool colors reminds us of cold objects and environments, while warm colors reminds of us of heat.


8. Color Relationships- A color model helps a designer see these relationships for planning color ideas, work in much the same way with mixed pigments.


9. Temperature Relationships- Designers can establish relationships within color palette based on relative temperature. Grouping colors with similar temperatures with one or two variation generates enormous possibilities for color combination.


10. Color: Form and Space- Applying color to a composition will have an immediate effect on hierarchy, the relative order of importance of forms in space.Color distinctions enhance the perception of spatial depth and force separation between the hierarchic levels.