Hello Class!

Welcome to WordPress. This is your new process journal platform. Hopefully, you will find it easier to use than the discussion forums on Canvas.

To begin, you will need to log in on the left.

Once logged in, you can add a new entry by clicking the ‘New Entry’ link in the left menu bar.

Be sure to hit the ‘Save & Return’ button at the bottom of the screen to save your changes or ‘Publish’ if this is new entry.

Reading Notes Ch 4

1.  Abstraction and Representation

  • An image might mostly be representational or mostly abstract, but it always will be a mixture of the two.  Abstract images communicate ideas that are grounded in the human experience.

2.  Image Modes and Mediation

  • A designer might choose to represent an idea by using photographs, illustrations, or a hybrid manipulated photographs or drawn images in combination.

3.  Semiology and Stylization

  • A designer might often need to represent ideas in a stylized way, selecting the most important elements form a subject and arranging them in as concise and simplified a message as possible.

4.  Illustration

  • The choice of illustration over photography opens up tremendous possibility for transmitting information.

5.  Drawing and Painting

  • The directness of hand-generated images is universally appealing, the designer taps into a viewer’s own sense of creativity and connects on an extremely personal level.

6.  The Medium Is a Message

  • Every drawing and painting tool makes characteristic marks and affords a designer a specific kind of visual language.  The language of the tool has a powerful effect on an illustration’s communicative value, not just on its visual qualities relative to other elements in a design solution.

7.  Graphic Translation

  • Graphic translation combines some attributes of both icon and symbol.  It depicts subjects in a literal way, like an icon, but also in a self-consciously abstract way that takes on symbolic qualities.

8.  Collage: Old and New

  • Assembling graphic elements in a free pictorial composition, called “collage”, is a relatively recent development in illustration. It derives from the evolution of representation in fine art form depicting a strictly singular view-point through the construction of multiple viewpoints.

9.  Photography

  • Realism and directness allow a viewer to enter the image and process it very quickly, rather than get distracted by abstract pictorial issues such as texture, medium, and composition.

10.  Narrative Interplay

  • Putting photographs together increases their semantic power and creates narrative, or storytelling; the instant two images can be compared, whether juxtaposed or arranged in sequence, a viewer will try to establish meaningful connections between them.

| CH. 3 NOTES |

  1. the nuts and bolts

letters at a standard reading size. the eye perceives letters to be all the same, weight, height, and width. This is the most critical aspect of type: stylistic uniformity discourages distraction during the reading process.

2.logo type

loose letter spacing makes a more distinct rhythm, and improves the legibility of the all uppercase setting and obviates spacing problems.


tightening or loosening spacing between letters corrects the awkward counter spaces inherent in their forms.

4. Case, weight, width,posture, and style

all very important things to learn about type that change the font drastically

5.Style classifications

classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among style, organizing them in a general way further helping select an appropriate typeface for a project.

6. What and why

selecting a typeface for its feel and mood for a particular style.

7. Combining type styles

the only reason to change a type face is to gain an effect of contrast,and so that the contrast achieved by the combination should be clearly recognizable.

8. Alignment logic


alignment of text has an effect on the spacing and within it and, therefore on the search for a desirable text setting.

9. push and pull

colons and semi colons need additional space preceding them and less space following them.

10. type is visual

acts as the same way that dots, lines squares, etc. do in composition. Type and pictures are equal players in design.


  1. “Stylistic uniformity discourages distraction during the reading process.”
  2. The goal in spacing letters is to have a rhythm between solid and void, but the primary difficulty is that letters have different densities. Computers have built in programming to correct spacing or “kerning” between letters, but the designer will need to make corrections sometimes too.
  3. Spacing must change at different sizes to allow for character recognition and improve legibility at smaller fonts.
  4. Any typeface becomes more neutral when something more stylized appears next to it.
  5. Contrast among typefaces that are juxtaposed is critical to achieving clarity, and helping the reader to categorize the information.
  6. Alignment: Centered-axis text is traditional and justified text reinforces geometry on the page.
  7. Methods of indicating a new paragraph include a line return, an indent, a bold lead line, or a graphic object.
  8. Typographic Color: Deals only with changes in lightness or darkness, and impacts the rhythm and texture of a page. Larger chunks of type come forward on the page, while lighter chunks recede into the background.
  9. Visual Hierarchy: Can be distinguished using changes in size, weight, alignment, rhythm, spacing, width or posture, orientation, gray value, or background contrast.
  10. Viewers will assume that even contrasting text elements are related to each other, so there must be an overarching unity to design choices.

Reading Notes Ch:3 Choosing and using Type

  1. The Nuts and Bolts
  • When the same type is enlarged and the minutes changes in character heigh, stroke width and the shapes become apparent.

2. Type Sizes and Spacing

  • Typeface has an impact on the perception of its size, setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text.

3.  Visual Variations

  • The letterforms in all typefaces vary form because a designers job is to carefully select his or her typeface. Alphabet Variation is an important step that’s able to combine correct typefaces for a project.

4. The Optics of Spacing

  • Every typeface has a distinct way of showing strokes and spaces.  This relationship between form and counter forms the optimal spacing of that particular typeface, between lines of type, and among paragraphs.

5. Style Classifications

  • Classifying type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way to help designers to select an correct typeface for a project.

6.  Combining Type Styles

  • Provides a framework for finding a maximum amount of contrasts. Select only two similar typefaces for a given position. Context has an important role in wondering whether or not to adhere to such limitation.

7. Know What and Why

It can be difficult to select a typeface based on its feeling or mood but every designer learns the mood that corresponds to each typeface, and shows how the viewer will react.

8. Alignment Logic

Justified text is the only setting which the lines are the same length and size. Rag is an uneven length.

9. Exploring the Ragged Edge

  • The rag of a paragraph might range from deep to shallow and active to subtle, consistency form the top of a paragraph down to the bottom.


10. Color and Hierarchy

  • Applying color to a black and white typographic composition will have an immediate effect on hierarchy.  It’s a good idea to understand how the hierarchy works in black and white.

Reading Notes Ch.3: Choosing and Using Type

1.The Nuts and Bolts -When the same type is enlarged, minute changes in character heigh, stroke width, and shape become apparent.

2.The Optics of spacing- Each type face as its own rhythm of strokes and spaces. The relationship between form and counter-form defines the optimal spacing of words, between lines of type , and among paragraphs.

3.Type sizes and spacing- Setting type smaller or larger than the optimal reading size for text also has an impact on spacing. Optimal spacing at reading size means that the stokes and counter-forms are evenly alternating.

4. Visual Variations- A designer must carefully evaluate his or her typeface selection in the context of the audience for a particular piece. Alphabet variation is an important first step in being able to select and combine appropriate typefaces for a project.

5. Style Classification- Classing type helps a designer grasp the subtle differences among styles, organizing them in a general way and further helping to select an appropriate typeface for a particular project.

6. The Details- Selecting a typeface for its feeling or mood is a tricky endeavor that often comes down to a designer’s rhythm  or shapes inherent in a particular style.

7. Combining Type Styles- Select only two typeface families for a given job, context plays an important role in deciding whether or not to adhere to such limitation.

8. Alignment Logic- Justified text is the only setting in which the lines are the same length. Rag is uneven lengths of the lines create soft shape on the nonaligned side.

9. Exploring the Ragged Edges- Word order and word breaks across lines also affect the rag. Designers must weigh the consequences of re-breaking the lines to prevent these problems against their effect on the rag as a whole.

10. The Optimal Paragraph- In which constellation of variables achieve a harmonic balance is a desirable paragraph setting. By comparing the results of these variations, a designer will be able to determine the comfortable text setting for extended reading.